All patients with stroke need good supportive care to treat the disease process, reduce risk factors, prevent and manage complications.
- Blockage of a blood vessel ( as in Ischemic stroke) can be cleared by injection of 'clot-busters' like Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA). Patients should receive this injection within three hours of onset of stroke.
- 'Blood thinner' (like aspirin) is given in most patients.
- Some patients develop life-threatening swelling of the brain, and require surgery (called hemi craniectomy) to save their lives
- In well-equipped centres, clots can be mechanically removed with a device from inside of the arteries after angiography.
- In intracerebral haemorrhage, control of blood pressure is important to prevent continued bleeding.
- Patient should be closely monitored for signs of increased pressure on the brain, such as restlessness, confusion, difficulty in following commands, and headache.
- Other measures should be taken to keep the patient away from straining due to excessive coughing, vomiting, lifting weights and straining at stool.
- Medicines may be given to control blood pressure, brain swelling, blood sugar levels, fever and seizures.
- Surgery, if needed, may include surgical removal of blood clot, also aneurysm clipping, coil embolization and arteriovenous malformation (AVM) repair.
- Patients also need to be assessed for disabilities and planned for continued management with physio therapy, occupational or speech therapy.
Reference: Stroke - National Health Portal of India